Villanova University

Carbonaceous Materials for Facilitating Hydrolysis of Munitions

Background and Unmet Need Legacy and insensitive high explosives (IHEs), such as 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN) and 2-methyl-1,3,5-trinitrobenzene (TN)T, are commonly found in soil at Department of Defense (DoD) testing and training ranges. These ranges maintain very high concentrations of DNAN, which poses a substantial safety concern for personnel as DNAN has been found to possess significant […]

Test Apparatus for Examining Brain Injury

Background and Unmet Need   Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a progressive degenerative disease resulting from head trauma, particularly a history of repeated head trauma. Athletes who play contact sports and military personnel who incur repeated head traumas, including concussive or sub-concussive traumas, are at the greatest risk of developing CTE. Many athletes may experience […]

Novel Alkyl Quaternary Phosphonium Compounds (Alkyl QPCs) as Antimicrobial Agents

Background and Unmet Need For nearly 100 years, quaternary ammonium cations (QACs) have been the standard antimicrobial agents in the disinfectant market. Within this class of disinfectants, Benzalkonium Chloride (BAC) is the most commercially visible product. After decades of dependence on QACs, the emergence of antimicrobial-resistant strains of bacteria such as A. baumannii and P. […]

Novel Soft Quaternary Phosphonium Compound (Soft QPC) Collection as Antimicrobial Agents

Background and Unmet Need Historically, quaternary ammonium cations (QACs) have been the standard antimicrobial agents in the current disinfectant market. However, the environmental persistence qualities of this agent are of notable concern. Long-term environmental exposure to QACs not only results in growth inhibition and lethal complications of aquatic organisms, but also contributes to antimicrobial resistance. […]

Novel Quaternary Phosphonium Compound (QPC) Disinfectants

Background and Unmet Need Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are a staple disinfectant in household, agricultural, industrial, and clinical settings.  Their popularity has continued to persist due to their broad-spectrum activity against various micro-organisms. While the non-specific mechanism of QACs suggested that these compounds would evade resistance development, unfortunately, tolerance of QACs was eventually observed. Furthermore, […]